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  1. #1
    Biblioman
    Date d'inscription
    mai 2005
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    Villeurbanne
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    32
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    3 228

    Par défaut Tutos pour une maquette 3d

    http://blogs.esri.com/Support/blogs/...0_-Part-1.aspx
    Making a Large-Scale 3D Map: Part 1

    By Kenneth Field, Research Cartographer

    1. Introduction
    With the release of Esri CityEngine, advanced tools now exist for creating rich 3D content for urban planning, architecture, entertainment, and GIS, but does 3D allow you to build useful static maps? Can we make 3D static maps with ArcGIS and what are the design considerations?
    3D views of our world are nothing new in cartography, and you don't have to have moving, interactive, or animated interfaces to create interesting 3D maps, as useful as they are in their own right. For example, the Bretez-Turgot Plan de Paris created in 1739 (figure 1) and Constantine Anderson's Midtown Manhattan from 1989 (figure 2), used highly detailed drawings to provide a uniquely realistic sense of place in the urban environment. Creating useful 3D maps requires some interesting cartographic design solutions, as these examples illustrate.

    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 1. Extract from the Bretez-Turgot Plan de Paris, 1739

    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 2. Extract from Constantine Anderson's Midtown Manhattan, 1989
    This three-part blog entry explores the cartographic design of these examples and shows you how to use ArcGIS to create your own detailed static 3D map. Part 1 provides some background to the design principles used to create these maps and how you can prepare your 2D data in ArcMap. Part 2 takes the 2D data into 3D using ArcScene and shows you how to convert your data to a form that allows you to render your 3D models using Google SketchUp. Finally, part 3 makes use of your 3D models in ArcScene to create the final map and shows you how to add symbology for other features in the landscape.
    2. Defining an Appropriate Projection
    The design philosophy for the Paris and Manhattan maps is unconventional in that it clarifies spatial relationships by adding detail, whereas in a lot of maps, clarification is achieved by simplifying and omitting extraneous detail. Anderson's map shows individual windows, subway station entrances, bus shelters, telephone booths, building canopies, trees, sidewalks, etc. It provides rich detail that allows you to immerse yourself in the environment to explore shops you've visited (or might want to visit), trace walks taken (or could take), or recount a life lived (or that you aspire to live). The map can be useful for micro-level navigation, where you are interested in localized features to assist you in finding a particular entrance to a large building or a street lamp that might need repair.
    What you will notice in both these examples though, is the way in which the viewing angle and projection have been modified to create a useful map. As humans, we view the world in a perspective view with foreground features given more prominence than background features, which is also how virtual globes represent the world. Yet in these maps, the background features are equal in prominence. How is this achieved? It all comes down to the projection.
    What you see in both the Paris and Manhattan examples is the use of a specific form of axonometric (meaning "to measure along angles") projection that allows you to view all parts of a static 3D image at the same scale whether they are in the foreground or the background. An axonometric projection is a type of parallel, or orthographic, projection where the object being viewed is rotated along one or more of its axes relative to the plane of projection. By contrast, a perspective projection is the way our eyes work and makes objects closer to the viewer larger, with everything else receding. There are several different forms of axonometric projection, but the one you see in the examples is called an isometric projection. It works by showing an image of an object as viewed from a skewed direction to reveal more than one side in the same picture (figure 3).

    Figure 3. Perspective and Isometric Projections
    The isometric projection shows an image such that the three axes of space appear equally foreshortened. The displayed angles among them, as well as the scale of foreshortening, are universally known. As you can see in figure 3, when viewed in perspective, angles between features vary at different points in the map. In the isometric projection, the grid is composed of parallel lines at all points, which means that angles between features remain consistent across the map, and the scale of distant features is the same as for near features. Representing geography like this will create a distorted appearance, as it is not how our eyes or photography work, but this distortion is extremely useful for overcoming the limitations posed by the perspective projection in maps.
    For 3D mapping, an isometric projection provides an excellent way of rendering large-scale urban landscapes, as it gives a uniformly scaled canvas on which to create a rich map where levels of detail, visibility, and legibility are consistent throughout. This is what this blog entry will show you how to build.
    3. Acquiring 2D Building Footprint Data
    The starting point for your 3D map is to use 2D data that represents the footprint of the features you want in your map. This blog entry is going to create a map in the style of the Paris or Manhattan examples, so building footprints are needed as a basis for creating the urban landscape. Often, the data is obtained from large-scale vector GIS datasets, architectural drawings (which can be converted from CAD drawings to a geodatabase using the CAD To Geodatabase tool), or locally surveyed data (gathered using surveys in GIS format). A further way of deriving large-scale data is to digitize the building boundaries on screen from high-resolution aerial imagery directly into ArcMap.
    Here, locally surveyed building footprints for a university campus, acquired using mobile GIS, will provide the necessary data. Figure 4 shows the building footprints (in beige) stored as a polygon feature class in a file geodatabase, along with the campus boundary denoted by the sidewalks (in blue).

    Figure 4. 2D Building Footprint Data
    4. Adding Height Information to the 2D Data
    Next, you will need to determine the height of buildings and add that to the 2D data attributes. Building heights can be derived from lidar data if you have it (there are many lidar solutions in ArcGIS), but there are simple techniques that can be just as effective for deriving building heights for relatively small areas. For instance, you could estimate height by measuring and then counting a repetitive building material such as bricks (multiplying the value by the repetition to get the overall height of each building). You could also assign a nominal height per building level (e.g., 3 metres per level).
    Whatever method you employ, once you have determined your height data, add a new height field to the 2D footprint data attribute table and add the data in an ArcMap edit session. Figure 5 shows height in metres for the buildings in the university campus dataset.

    Figure 5. Building Height Attribution
    5. Performing a Site Survey
    At this stage, it is worth pointing out that it is not only buildings that will be useful to your final 3D model. Performing a site survey is not fundamental to creating your map but can provide you with very useful contextual information. The more familiar you are with the detail of the area you are mapping, the less likely you are to make errors. Performing a local site survey will probably reveal important features you may want to eventually add to or use to enhance your map. You should treat the site survey as a way of collating all the information you think you will require to prepare an accurate 3D map of the area. If you remember the Paris and Manhattan examples, the key to their success is in the rich detail, much of which you will not find in contemporary datasets.
    Again, mobile GIS techniques can be used to digitize features directly into a geodatabase, or you might prefer annotating paper copies of the 2D footprint data. It is also useful to take photographs for reference (noting where the photos were taken). The 3D map will be more realistic if you include not only buildings but also street furniture (e.g., benches, trash cans, signposts), vegetation, fences and walls, and other environmental information.
    As with any dataset, ensure that the attributes of the data are accurate. For instance, if you have a single point feature class for trees, you might want each point to have tree height and species attributes. Walls and fences might have a height attribute, and if you have street furniture, add an attribute to describe the type (bench, bike rack, etc.). The more detailed your attribution at this stage, the more flexibility you will have when you design the symbology at a later stage.
    6. Summary
    In part 1 of this blog entry, you've learned about some of the design requirements to consider when creating a large-scale static 3D map. You've also started the process of creating your 3D map by preparing your 2D data in ArcMap. In part 2 of the blog entry, you'll learn how to transfer your 2D data into ArcScene and create 3D models of your building features.

    Filed under: Cartographic Design, Symbology, Page Layout, ArcGIS 10

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    About kenfield

    Kenneth Field joined Esri as Research Cartographer in March 2011. He was formerly Principal Lecturer (tenured Professor) at Kingston University London where he was Course Director for Bachelors and Masters programmes at the Centre for GIS. A graduate of Oxford Polytechnic's cartography degree programme, he obtained his doctorate from Leicester University, UK. He has spent the first 20 years of his career to date enthusing students to produce high quality cartography and geovisualization. He has presented papers and keynotes at over 100 conferences worldwide, published about 50 papers and book chapters, won a few map awards and is the current Editor of The Cartographic Journal (@CartoJnl) and Chair of the ICA Commission on Map Design. He tweets as @kennethfield.
    http://blogs.esri.com/Support/blogs/...ap-part-2.aspx
    Making a Large-Scale 3D Map: Part 2


    By Kenneth Field, Research Cartographer
    1. Introduction
    In part 1 of this blog entry, you learned about some of the design considerations for creating a large-scale 3D map and prepared your 2D building data in ArcMap. In part 2, you will use ArcScene to create 3D representations of your building data and also transfer your data to Google SketchUp for further model building. Part 3 will use the models to create a 3D map using an isometric projection and show you how to symbolize features.

    2. Extruding Buildings in ArcScene
    Once you have added a height attribute to your building footprint feature class, it's time to switch to ArcScene. ArcScene is similar to ArcMap in many ways, but the crucial difference is you can visualize features in 3D by providing height information from feature geometry, feature attributes, layer properties, or a defined 3D surface (such as a digital elevation model, or DEM). You'll do this using the height data added as an attribute.
    In ArcScene, add your building footprint feature class to the table of contents. Because you're now working in a 3D environment, you have additional ways of interacting with your data that allow you to rotate and tilt the view as well as operate the usual pan and zoom functions (figure 1).
    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 1. ArcScene Navigation Tools

    Now you can use the height information to extrude the building footprints. Right-click the building feature class in the table of contents and select Properties. In the Layer Properties dialog box (figure 2), click the Extrusion tab, check the Extrude features in layer box, and then select the field that contains your height attribute as an Extrusion value (in the example below, this is [height]). Then toggle the Apply extrusion by drop-down box, select adding it to each feature's base height, and click OK.

    Figure 2. Using Layer Properties to Extrude Data in ArcScene

    Your 2D building footprints will now be extruded to the height of each building to create 3D representations for each building (figure 3).
    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 3. 3D Extruded Buildings in ArcScene

    3. Converting Data
    The next stage converts your 3D building footprints into a true 3D dataset by creating multipatch geometry, which models the exterior shell representation for 3D objects (see the Esri white paper for full details of the Multipatch Geometry Type).
    Multipatch geometry defines a collection of triangular faces, much like a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) data model. Collectively, the triangular faces create 3D features. To create multipatch geometry from your 2D extruded features in ArcScene, you will use the Layer 3D to Feature Class tool and select Buildings as the Input Feature Layer and a suitable name for the Output Feature Class (figure 4).

    Figure 4. Layer 3D to Feature Class Tool

    A new multipatch feature class of the data is added to the scene in ArcScene (figure 5).

    Figure 5. 3D Buildings in ArcScene as a Multipatch Feature Class

    To render the building models with textures and imagery to create a realistic building model, you now need to transfer your buildings from ArcScene to a third-party 3D design package. There are many you might use including CityEngine, 3DS Max, or SketchUp.
    Google's SketchUp is used here, since it provides the basic tools to apply textured and photo-realistic rendering to the multipatch building blocks you've created in ArcScene. Because SketchUp doesn't natively support the multipatch data format, you will need to convert it into an interoperable format—in this case, the Collaborative Design Activity (COLLADA) format. COLLADA is one of a number of very useful data formats that is interoperable with a range of third- party 3D design software and is perfect for moving data between ArcScene and SketchUp.
    Using the Multipatch To COLLADA tool, export your multipatch feature class to a collection of COLLADA files. Figure 6 shows the multipatch dataset as the Input Multipatch Features; you will specify an Output Collada Folder, which will store your collection of COLLADA files. When you specify a Field Name, your COLLADA files will be named according to the ObjectID (or whatever attribute you specify). In the example shown, a separate COLLADA file will be created for each separate feature in the multipatch dataset. The building with ObjectID 1 will be called KU_multipatch_1.dae, and so on.

    Figure 6. Multipatch To Collada Tool

    If you select particular buildings in the dataset using the Select Features tool prior to running the Multipatch To Collada tool, only those will be exported. If you export the whole dataset, each building will be exported and will have its own COLLADA file. You're now ready to apply some rendering in SketchUp.

    4. Rendering 3D COLLADA Models in SketchUp
    The COLLADA (.dae) file(s) you created can now be imported to SketchUp. Once the file opens, you should select all (CTRL+A) and then explode the features (Edit > Component > Explode). This releases the separate faces of the 3D model so you can work with them individually.
    Each building can be edited and modeled to render the facades and detail you want using SketchUp's design tools. There are numerous tutorials available to help you render 3D models using SketchUp. You can use the textures available in SketchUp to apply surface types to the buildings and modify the shape of roof features and other smaller building characteristics. You can also apply photo-realistic renderings using photographs you may have taken when you completed a site survey. If you plan on using photographs, attempt to make them as orthographic as possible (i.e., take them perpendicular to the feature) and as small as possible in terms of file size and pattern repetition (because you can use a small piece of photo-realistic rendering and tile it across a building face). Simpler patterns and fills and limiting the use of photographic rendering will result in smaller file sizes and improved redraw speeds when you finish the model. However, photographs can be used to add signage to your building models to add realism. Figure 7 illustrates one of the buildings from the university campus, showing it before any rendering (figure 7a) and after rendering has been applied using SketchUp (figure 7b).

    Figure 7a. Rendering a COLLADA Model in SketchUp (before)


    Figure 7b. Rendering a COLLADA Model in SketchUp (after)

    Once you have finished rendering your model, you can save it as a SketchUp (.skp) file so you can go back and make modifications easily at a later date, but in order to move it back into ArcScene, you once again use the COLLADA data format. In SketchUp, export your model to a COLLADA file (.dae).

    5. Placing Rendered 3D Models in ArcScene
    Once you've rendered your 3D models in SketchUp and exported them as COLLADA (.dae) files, you're ready to bring them back into ArcScene, taking advantage of some of the new 3D editing capabilities available in ArcGIS 10.
    Begin a 3D edit session using the 3D Editor toolbar. 3D editing works in exactly the same way as 2D editing except that it is designed for the 3D environment by considering the z-value (height) of the geometry in addition to the x- and y- values.
    Using the Edit Placement tool on the 3D Editor toolbar, select the building you wish to edit (figure 8). Your selection should match precisely the COLLADA model from SketchUp that you intend to import. Once your building is selected, you'll see its faces highlighted; select Replace With Model on the 3D Editor drop-down menu.

    Figure 8. 3D Editing and Model Selection in ArcScene

    Navigate to the COLLADA (.dae) file for your building and open it. The model you exported from SketchUp will now automatically replace the basic ArcGIS multipatch feature, since the spatial reference has been maintained throughout the various data conversions you've performed (figure 9).

    Figure 9. Replacement of a Mutipatch Feature with a Rendered Model in ArcScene

    This demonstrates how simple it is to move data between your GIS environment and 3D design software (like SketchUp) so you can add realistic renderings to your 3D building. Once you've added all the 3D models to ArcScene, save your edits and exit the 3D edit session. Your new 3D models will replace the basic multipatch features in the geodatabase.

    6. Summary
    This part of the blog entry showed you how to convert your 2D data to 3D in ArcScene and then use conversion tools to get the data into SketchUp for rendering. Finally, you brought the models back into ArcScene and replaced the basic multipatch features. The final part of the blog entry will show you how to position the models in ArcScene and work with 3D symbols and drawing to create the finished 3D map.

    Filed under: Cartographic Design, Symbology, Page Layout, ArcGIS 10

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    Anonymous comments are disabled
    About kenfield

    Kenneth Field joined Esri as Research Cartographer in March 2011. He was formerly Principal Lecturer (tenured Professor) at Kingston University London where he was Course Director for Bachelors and Masters programmes at the Centre for GIS. A graduate of Oxford Polytechnic's cartography degree programme, he obtained his doctorate from Leicester University, UK. He has spent the first 20 years of his career to date enthusing students to produce high quality cartography and geovisualization. He has presented papers and keynotes at over 100 conferences worldwide, published about 50 papers and book chapters, won a few map awards and is the current Editor of The Cartographic Journal (@CartoJnl) and Chair of the ICA Commission on Map Design. He tweets as @kennethfield.
    http://blogs.esri.com/Support/blogs/...ap-part-3.aspx
    Making a Large-Scale 3D Map: Part 3


    By Kenneth Field, Research Cartographer
    1. Introduction
    In part 1 and part 2 of this blog entry, you learned about some of the design considerations for creating a large-scale 3D map, prepared your 2D building data in ArcMap, used ArcScene to create 3D representations of your building data, and transferred your data to Google SketchUp to render your models and then brought your models back into ArcScene. In this final part, you will use the models to create a 3D isometric map and add a range of additional symbols to create a rich large-scale 3D landscape for your static map.

    2. Defining an Isometric Map Projection in ArcScene
    Figure 1 illustrates the finished model of the university campus in ArcScene viewed with the default perspective projection. With the perspective projection, the foreground buildings appear much larger than those in the background. By placing a regularly spaced grid underneath the model, you can see how the perspective projection modifies scale and angles across the image.

    Figure 1. University Model in ArcScene with Perspective Projection

    To modify the projection properties, you need to alter the ArcScene View Settings (View > View Settings). There are a number of controls you can modify in View Settings to change the viewing angle relative to the point of observation. To create an isometric map, you need to modify the projection properties, though you'll notice there is no option to directly change from perspective to isometric (figure 2). You can, however, achieve the isometric effect by first changing the viewfield angle to 1 (the minimum), and, second, increasing the pitch angle. A pitch angle of 38 degrees seems to work well, though you can experiment with this setting to create a viewing pitch suited to your intended map product.

    Figure 2. Modifying View Settings to Create an Isometric Projection

    Figure 3 shows you the change in the way the university campus now appears. Changing the pitch angle has the effect of raising the viewer's position in the scene relative to the central part of the scene. Changing the viewfield angle displays the scene with a narrow field of view applied equally across the entire image. The regular grid now clearly demonstrates the equal scale and angles across the image that the isometric projection creates.
    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 3. University Model in ArcScene with Isometric Projection

    3. Adding Map Detail
    Now that you have the 3D model as an isometric projection in ArcScene, you can use it as a basis for preparing the final map product. Recalling that it is detail that adds clarity to the Paris and Manhattan examples you saw in part 1 of this blog entry, there are a number of ways you can add to your map.
    Adding some large-scale basemap detail into the map places your model in its real-world location. You might have large-scale detail already, or you might have created it specifically for your project by doing a local survey. For the university campus, large-scale data exists for the surrounding area that includes local roads, sidewalks, parking lots, and footprints of other buildings. By adding it as a layer in ArcScene and symbolizing the 2D data in harmony with the colours used in your model, you can create a well-designed basemap for your model to sit on. Figure 4 shows the use of subtle, complementary colours that illustrate the street layout and also shows where other buildings exist. Because they are not part of the university campus, they are not included as models, but symbolizing them as footprints creates a good visual hierarchy between the surrounding basemap and the university itself.

    Figure 4. Adding Basemap Detail to Place the Model in Its Surrounding Context

    As part of the local survey undertaken by the university, the locations of street furniture (signposts, benches, etc.), walls, and vegetation were collected. These were stored as point feature classes in a file geodatabase with details of each feature's height and rotation (from north) also collected and added as attributes. The point feature classes were added to ArcScene as a new layer. Symbolizing these point features is the same as in ArcMap, except you now have the option of using 3D marker symbols. The ArcGIS Resource Center contains details of how to symbolize a point as a 3D marker using a style. A range of signposts, barriers, bins, bollards, benches, and streetlights were used from ArcGIS 3D marker styles and the height and rotation of each symbol set in the layer's Symbology > Advanced properties (figure 5).

    Figure 5. Symbolizing Point Features Using 3D Marker Symbols

    Adding street furniture and vegetation begins to bring the detail of the university campus to life (figure 6).
    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 6. Adding street furniture and vegetation increases the detail

    Trees and shrubs are stored as point features in a separate feature class and symbolized using the same technique as the other point features. Tree species and height in the layer's attributes are used to create symbols that match 3D marker symbol names and scale the 3D marker symbols correctly. Using the Advanced button, rotation is set to random so that the 3D trees appear more natural (figure 7).

    Figure 7. Symbolizing Vegetation Using Random Rotation for the 3D Marker Symbols

    Figure 6 also shows the addition of walls, fences, and raised planters, which are 2D polygon features extruded in the layer properties by their height attribute in the same way as you originally extruded the building footprints in part 1 of the blog entry.
    An alternative to symbolizing vegetation using 3D markers is to use COLLADA models and edit the tree feature class, replacing the trees with trees modeled outside ArcGIS. There are numerous libraries of COLLADA models available that could be used for this (e.g.,Google 3D Warehouse). To take this approach, you will first need to turn your tree feature class into a multipatch feature class (as you did for the building models in part 1 of the blog entry). Then you will follow the same 3D editing process to select a feature and replace it with a COLLADA model that was illustrated in part 2 of this blog entry (for the building models). Figures 8a–c illustrate the process.

    Figure 8a. A Selection of Trees on the University Campus Symbolized Using ArcGIS 3D Marker Symbols

    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 8b. Selecting a Tree and Replacing It with a Model


    Figure 8c. ArcGIS 3D Marker Tree Replaced by a Third-Party COLLADA Model

    4. Adding Map Symbols
    The university model is going to be used as a map for people to navigate around the campus. The detailed isometric map built thus far shows the campus environment in detail. To make the map more useful, though, you can add further symbols and text using the 3D Graphics toolbar (figure 9). Begin by adding a new graphics layer to ArcScene and, if necessary, add further layers within the Graphics layer to organize your symbology. For the university map, building labels, symbols, cars, and plants and street labels were added.

    Figure 9. The 3D Graphics Toolbar in ArcScene

    Using the various tools on the 3D Graphics toolbar, you can add 3D marker, line, and polygon symbols and 3D text. All your new graphics will be digitized and stored in the graphics layer that you target. The following ArcGIS Resource Center topics explain in detail how to digitize graphics features in ArcScene:
    Digitizing a 3D point in ArcScene
    Digitizing a 3D line graphic in ArcScene
    Digitizing a 3D polygon graphic in ArcScene
    Digitizing a 3D text graphic in ArcScene
    Figure 10 illustrates the map in ArcScene with the addition of a range of graphics.
    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 10. University Campus Model in ArcScene with the Addition of Graphics Layers

    5. Finishing the Map
    Since the purpose of this model is to create a static 3D isometric map of the university campus, the final stage is exporting it from ArcScene. Select File > Export Scene > 2D and choose an appropriate file format. PNG generally works well. This will create an image of the scene from ArcScene. You can then import this into a graphics package or back into an ArcMap layout for finishing.
    Figure 11 shows the final map as an ArcMap layout. The PNG was added using Insert > Picture and the title and legend detail added using the Drawing tools in ArcMap.

    Figure 11. Final University Campus Map

    6. Using the 3D Model in Alternative Ways
    The model created for the university campus map can be used in alternative ways. For instance, by rotating the model in ArcScene, you can create exported PNG files from different viewing positions. This might be useful for creating You Are Here-style maps where the map is displayed with the buildings in front of the viewer rather than having them interpret their location and orientation in a single map from a fixed position. Figure 12 illustrates the same model, rotated to show the university campus from an alternative viewing position. Note how the graphic symbols have automatically rotated with the view so they are correctly aligned.
    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 12. Using the Model to Create Alternative Viewing Positions

    Using ArcScene functions for animation and the Animation Toolbar, the 3D model can provide a great basis from which to create a short movie. The University Introduction movie (Figure 13) was created by exporting an animation from ArcScene and then using Microsoft Windows Live Movie Maker to add simple transitions, text, graphical effects, and a soundtrack. You can view the entire movie by clicking on the image below (133Mb).
    Image enlevée (20 images par post)
    Figure 13. Still from the Kingston University Movie

    7. Summary
    This three-part blog has shown you how to take 2D data for a large-scale area and use it as a basis for creating a detailed 3D model. It has shown you the various processes for transferring your data between software packages and also the file formats you need to work with. It has also shown you how to create highly detailed and rich symbology and finish the map in an isometric projection to replicate the approach taken by the Bretez-Turgot Plan de Paris and Constantine Anderson's Midtown Manhattan maps.
    It's at this point that acknowledgment should be made to the final group of students I taught at Kingston University before joining Esri. This project was set as an assignment in response to the publication of newly commissioned official university maps which, in truth, were extremely poor so we set about developing alternatives. The students applied their GIS and cartographic knowledge and skills to develop a range of superior products. They were rewarded at the 2011 Esri International User Conference with first place in the multimedia map category in the User Applications Fair. It also formed the basis for the work I presented in the Making Beautiful Maps session at the User Conference. Their great work underpins this blog entry.
    Thanks to my former students Alex Chiu, Alistair Leak, Becky Watson, Chris Clarke, Harry Tull, Max Canty, Nick Bosch, Sam Jackson, and Tapiwa Sithole. Great work...and still so much better than the university's official maps!

    Filed under: Cartographic Design, Symbology, Page Layout, ArcGIS 10

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    Anonymous comments are disabled
    About kenfield

    Kenneth Field joined Esri as Research Cartographer in March 2011. He was formerly Principal Lecturer (tenured Professor) at Kingston University London where he was Course Director for Bachelors and Masters programmes at the Centre for GIS. A graduate of Oxford Polytechnic's cartography degree programme, he obtained his doctorate from Leicester University, UK. He has spent the first 20 years of his career to date enthusing students to produce high quality cartography and geovisualization. He has presented papers and keynotes at over 100 conferences worldwide, published about 50 papers and book chapters, won a few map awards and is the current Editor of The Cartographic Journal (@CartoJnl) and Chair of the ICA Commission on Map Design. He tweets as @kennethfield.
    Home is where the .arc is...
    Propos sous license Beerware !!!

  2. #2

    Date d'inscription
    décembre 2012
    Messages
    1

    Par défaut

    nice post i like ................
    coool

 

 

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