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  1. #1
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    Date d'inscription
    janvier 2007
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    Par dfaut [ArcGIS 9.x] Reprsentation carto : Raliser un effet pour les traits de cte


    arcOrama vient de publier un ticket plus qu'intressant sur les mthodes possibles pour raliser des effets de dgrad sur les traits de ctes.

    De plus, le blog annonce qu'il publiera au fur et a mesure plusieurs techniques pour les reprsentations cartographiques.

    A plus
    (`..La culture, c'est comme la confiture... sauf qu'il y en a un qui nourrit moins que l'autre..)

    >Merci de lire les rgles du forum avant de poster<

  2. #2
    Date d'inscription
    mai 2005
    3 293

    Par dfaut

    complter avec l'article du mapping center:
    Symbolizing world water

    Symbolizing world water

    I am working on a small scale map of the world that shows political boundaries over time from about 2000BC to the present. For this map, I want to show the world's water with a bit of variation along the coasts. This is desirable for a couple of reasons: 1) to better indicate where the islands are, and 2) to provide better figure-ground by separating the land areas visually from the ocean areas.
    And easy way to do this is with a coastal vignette, as we have discussed previously (Symbolizing Shorelines). In this blog entry, I demonstrate an easy way to achieve this effect for the ocean waters of the world. There are a couple of things you have to do to "clean things up" if you are working at a global extent -- specifically, the vignettes will extend beyond the "edge of the world"!
    To demonstrate how you can avoid this, I will use two feature classes that can be found in the data set that you can opt to load when you install the software cntry92 and world30. Cntry92 has country boundaries and world30 is the graticule in 30 degree increments.

    Please note that the map examples in this blog use the native projection of the data sets WGS84. This is because I want you to be able to recognize the data sets off the DVD and I want you to clearly see the "edge of the world" problem. For our final map, we will instead be using a Robinson projection, and you should use an appropriate projection for your map as well.
    The first thing you need to do is to dissolve each of these feature classes. You will use the dissolved cntry92 to determine which areas are land and which are water for your coastal vignettes. You will use the dissolved world30 to determine the global extent.

    The next thing to do is create the coastal vignette you can use the Buffer Tool for this step if you want to create uniform width buffers quickly and easily (you can add this tool to your ArcMap interface by clicking Tools off the top bar menu -> Customize -> Commands tab -> Tools category -> then drag the Buffer Wizard tool to any existing toolbar in your interface). Use cntry92 as the input. Set the number of buffers and the distance relative to your map scale. I am working at a scale of 1:150,000,000 to make a map of the world that will fit on a letter sized (8.5" x 11") page, so I used 10 buffers of 50 kilometers to create a 500 kilometer vignette along the coasts.
    You should be able to determine the number of buffers by considering how smoothly you want the colors to vary on your map the more buffers, the smoother the color gradation, but also the slower the processing and drawing time. You can determine the distance in part by evaluating how much more easily you can see the islands.
    Tip: You can use the Measure tool (use the sixth button to the right on the toolbar to choose the units you want to measure in) to get an idea of how far out to have the buffers extend.
    Set the Buffer Wizard tool to create buffers so they are outside the polygons and include the inside.

    Now use the Union tool in ArcToolbox (Analysis Tools -> Overlay) to combine the buffers with the extent of the dissolved world30 the inputs are world30_Dissolve and the buffer tool output. Notice in your results that the buffers extend beyond the "edge of the world".

    To take care of this problem, use the Clip tool (Analysis Tools -> Extract) to clip the union tool results to the extent of the dissolved world30 feature class.

    In an edit session, change the ToBufDist value from 0 to 1000 so that it is a larger number than the value for the last buffer. This will make applying the color ramp in the symbology easier.
    To symbolize the results use the Categories Unique Values renderer with ToBufDist as the value field.

    Use a blue to white color ramp with light blue for the smaller numbers.

    Right click a symbol to set the properties for all symbols and change the outline to No Color.
    If you want, one last step would be to erase the land areas from the water with the vignettes because the each buffer actually includes all the land area that it buffers. To do this, use the Erase tool with the clipped buffer feature class as the input features and cntry92_Dissolve feature class as the erase featrues. If you intend to use any transparency with this layer, you will probably want to complete this last step.
    Now you have a world water feature class that is ready to be used to symbolize your water whenever you need it!

    This is what the results look like without cntyr92 displayed.

    This is what the results look like with cntry92 displayed.

    This is a close up of an area with islands.
    Home is where the .arc is...
    Propos sous license Beerware !!!

  3. #3
    Date d'inscription
    octobre 2007
    Chef de projet SIG
    1 083

    Par dfaut

    waw on dirait illustrator ^^
    merci ESRI!

  4. #4
    Date d'inscription
    mai 2005
    3 293

    Par dfaut

    MJ pour ArcGIS 10 et largissement aux terres
    Figure-Ground: Feathering

    By Aileen Buckley, Mapping Center Lead
    In a previous blog entry, I discussed some of the major design principles used in cartography, including Figure-ground organization which is the spontaneous separation of the figure in the foreground from an "amorphous" background. Cartographers use this design principle to help their map readers find the area of the map or page to focus on. One way to promote figure-ground organization is to use a "feathering" effect in which the edges of the map are softened and appear to blend into the background. The way this is done in ArcMap is to use a buffered vignette and the advanced drawing setting for transparency.

    Figure 1. The map on the left has poor figure-ground organization. The map on the right uses feathering to promote this effect.
    Four steps are involved to create this effect:

    1. creating buffers for the vignette,
    2. adding a "universe polygon" to the buffer vignette feature class,
    3. adding and calculating the transparency attribute, and
    4. symbolizing the buffers using transparency.

    Creatingbuffers for the vignette
    To get an initial idea how far you want the "feathering" to extend, use the Measure tool. For my map, I decided that I wanted the feathering effect to end a small distance from the furthest extent of the feathering to the edge of the page - that distance is about 100 kilometers.

    TIP: You can also use the Multiple Ring Buffer tool in the Analysis toolbox. Using the Buffer Wizard instead is a little faster, especially if you want to experiment with the number of buffers and the distances.
    To add the Buffer Wizard tool to your ArcMap session, click Customize on the top bar menu and then Customize Mode. In the "Show commands containing:" area, type "Buffer Wizard". Click on the Buffer Wizard tool then drag and drop the tool onto any toolbar displayed in the ArcMap window. Click on the tool to open it.

    1. On the first page of the wizard select the feature class that contains a polygon for the area that you want to be the "figure".
    2. On the second page, choose the third option to create buffers "As multiple rings", and set the number of rings and distance between rings. Note that the more rings you add, the smoother the effect but more rings will also slow down the drawing time. Generally, between 10-20 buffers is sufficient, depending on the total distance you want to use for the "feathering".
    3. On the third page, choose the options to:
      1. dissolve buffers between barriers,
      2. create buffers so they are only outside the polygon,
      3. save the buffers in a new layer, and
      4. specify the name and location of this new layer.

    Adding a "universe polygon" to the buffer vignette feature class
    Notice that you can see outside the extent of the last buffer. What you need to do is add a polygon to the outside of the buffers - we'll call this the "universe polygon". There are many ways that you can do this - I find that this is one of the easiest:

    1. In Layout view, double click the data frame to "focus" it.
    2. Using the New Rectangle tool on the Draw toolbar, draw a graphic that fills the extent of the page.
    3. Switch to Data view and make the rectangle a little larger than the page extent using the handles to pull box out on opposite corners.
    4. Switch back to Layout view.
    5. Right click the data frame in the table of contents and click Convert Graphics to Features.
    6. Name the output feature class MapExtent and check the option to "Automatically delete graphic after conversion".
    7. Use the Union tool in the Overlay toolset of the Analysis Tools toolbox with the buffer feature class and MapExtent as the input features, and name the output feature class Temp.
    8. To remove the inner polygon, use the Erase tool in the Overlay toolset of the Analysis Tools toolbox with Temp as the Input Features and the polygon for the area that you want to be the "figure" (in my case, Bangladesh) as the Erase Features, and name the output feature class FeatheringEffect.

      The result will include the buffers and the universe polygon but not the inside polygon.
    9. Remove Temp from the table of contents.

    Adding and calculating the transparency attribute
    Now you need to add an attribute and calculate the transparency values.

    1. Right-click the FeatheringEffect layer in the Table of Contents and click Open Attribute Table.
    2. Click the Table Options button and click Add Field.
    3. Name the field "Xpar" which is an abbreviation for "transparency".
    4. Click the Type dropdown arrow and change the field type to Long Integer.
    5. Click OK.
    6. Right-click the Xpar field heading and click Field Calculator.
    7. Enter the following:
      100-((100 * [FromBufDst])/[LargestFromBufDst_Distance])
      where [LargestFromBufDst_Distance] is the largest distance value in the FromBufDszxt attribute field. This calculate sttement will calculate transparency values that are a function of the distance so that the buffers farther away are less transparent. Click OK.
    8. Click on the box at the very left of the first record in the table (the one with an FID of -1) to select the "universe polygon". Use the Field Calculator to calculate the Xpar value as 0.

    Symbolizing the buffers
    Now all that is left to do is symbolize the layer.

    1. Right-click the FeatheringEffect layer in the table of contents and click Properties.
    2. Click the Symbology tab.
    3. In the "Show:" area, click Features > Single Symbol.
    4. Click the Symbol patch to change the symbol. Change the Fill Colro to White and the Outline to No Color.
    5. Click OK to close the Symbol Selector dialog.
    6. Click the Advanced button next to the symbol patch and click Transparency.
    7. Select Xpar as the field that you will use to vary the transparency of the features.
    8. Click OK.

    The result is a subtle fading out to the background.

    If you want to add any other features, be sure to place them under the FeatheringEffect layer in the table of contents. If you have text that falls within the feathering area and you also want it to be affected by the feathering, convert it to annotation and place it under the FeatheringEffect layer as well (otherwise the text will draw over all the layers including the FeatheringEffect layer).

    Filed under: Symbology, Page Layout


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    About abuckley

    Aileen Buckley is the Mapping Center Lead. She came to Esri in 2003 from University of Oregon (UO) where she was a professor of geography teaching cartography, GIS, GPS, and other mapping sciences. She holds an adjunct associate professor appointment at the University of Redlands in their Masters of Science in GIS program. Her Doctoral degree is from Oregon State University. Prior to her doctoral studies, she worked at an engineering firm as a project manager on projects converting cadastral paper maps to GIS data layers. And before that she worked in the Cartography Division of the National Geographic Society on the seventh edition of their Atlas of the World. She has written a number of articles and book chapters on various aspects of GIS and cartography, and she is an editor of the Encyclopedia of Geographic Information Science by Sage Publications. At UO, she also helped author the Atlas of Oregon, Second Edition (2001). She is second author of the book Map Use: Reading and Analysis, Sixth Edition by Esri Press. She was the 2007-2009 president of the Cartography and Geographic Information Society (CaGIS).
    Home is where the .arc is...
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